How Congested Cities are Dealing with Waste Disposal

Urban dwellers are often driven by what they want as much as what they need. Unfortunately, waste disposal issues have crippled congested cities, and the problem will only worsen as this environment continues to be in a state of growth.

A sophisticated waste disposal system is required to deal with the high quantities of rubbish, but finding a suitable method isn’t a simple task. You cannot help but jeopardize the comforts of city living if you give this issue the attention it richly deserves.

Waste Disposal

Government Issues with Waste Disposal

Local governments have left waste disposal to landfill and incineration companies, but this approach has become expensive and inefficient. The UK’s vision for sustainable waste management is often aided by reducing waste. You do this by promoting individuals and companies to make products with fewer natural resources, which should break the link between economic and waste growth.

Government officials are struggling to find an alternative solution, as the population continues to grow within the confines of these urban cities, so has the amount of waste being produced by their residents.
If any government initiative is going to work, then the general public must be involved. The City of London has introduced a “Time Banding Scheme” for both residential and commercial waste disposal throughout each neighborhoods. The plan is to restrict all businesses and residents from placing waste and recycle bins on the streets during certain hours of the day.

The UK is trying to cut down methane emissions, which is a greenhouse gas that is more potent than carbon dioxide in terms of global warming. The government created The Landfill Directive in an attempt to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste that can be sent to a landfill.

Possible solutions

It’s vital for congested cities like London to implement an integrated waste management plan that tackles this issue by creating a recycling, reduction, and reuse program. The hope through education and adopting better practices will help to reduce the overall amount of discarded waste.

Recycling in the UK is an easy process, as most recyclable items can be placed in either a clear recycling sack or into a recycling bin. Larger cities in the UK still do not provide direct commercial waste disposal service. Local businesses must contact waste collection operators to schedule a pick-up of their rubbish.

Promoting recycling is very important in improving the process in how we as a culture dispose waste in a more environmental and efficient manner. The development of useful materials from recycled waste will encourage better a sorting process from individuals.


Hydrogen-powered cars

Exploring Hydrogen as an Alternate Fuel for Vehicles

The same stuff that can power rockets may be coming to your vehicle pretty soon. Hydrogen-powered cars used to be the stuff of science fiction, but it’s coming out in a big way for the rest of us. It’s known as fuel cell technology, given that the hydrogen has to be placed in a stable system in order for it to actually do the job. But is this stuff ready for prime time? Let’s look into that.

In order to power something, the hydrogen atoms within the fuel cell have to be separated from their electrons. This produces electricity and also forms water as a byproduct of the process. But in order for mainstream adoption to take place, things had to get a little more complex than that. You see, hydrogen is extremely difficult to store and even harder to transport properly. Despite these challenges, there’s been an increase in government incentives for the US.

Hydrogen-powered cars

The biggest problem facing hydrogen fuel cells is that there aren’t refilling stations easily available right now. Charging stations follow a pretty old model: we already know how to bring electricity somewhere, so charging a vehicle isn’t really that much different. But hydrogen is a completely different concept, so it requires a completely different supply chain.

Automakers are entering the fuel cell game, but it’s not because they have an overwhelming desire to benefit mankind here. It’s because the incentives are there for them to try to bring fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Currently, the government treats these fuel cell vehicles equivalent to their electric counterparts. In the state of California, it’s even worse: fuel cells give automakers the most ZEV (zero emission vehicle) credits for their investment. So this is really more of an effort to please shareholders than it is to please consumers, but the two goals are still connected. If they can increase consumer demand, then they will improve sales and protect this investment.  In 2017, the EPA will give both types of alternative vehicles an impressive credit multiplier of 2.0, covering the rest of an automakers fleet, and helping them cover the costs of investment. Multiple automakers have formed partnerships between each other, including BMW and Toyota, as well as GM and Honda. There’s a large partnership underway between Ford, Daimler, and Renault-Nissan.

Are you able to buy a fuel cell car right now? Not worldwide, and not even in every US state. You can purchase them in California, but the refueling stations aren’t widespread just yet. It’s a technology that still has a lot of room to grow. (more…)

DENSO alternators

DENSO alternators

Automatic vehicles as well as some manual vehicles come with alternators that replace the old auto generators. The latter was used by vehicles to generate the power required for the car to function. The modern day alternators such as the Denso alternators are modified and enhanced to match the technological advancement in the vehicle industry.

DENSO alternators

Minimal brush abrasion and wear

Denso alternators are compatible with motorsports vehicles due to their high efficiency, light weight and durability. There are remanufactured Denso alternators that undergo a grueling process: rectifiers and stators are tested up top 300 volts, and the rotors submitted up to 600 volts for a reliable performance. The rotor slip rings have got an eight-micron surface finish and the runout limit being twenty microns .this minimizes the brush abrasions and wear. Bearings are loaded with lubricants with OE standards while the remanufactured or new alternators are validated up to OE standards.

First Time Fit®

These alternators meet the Denso thorough fit standards and come in versions varying from forty to a hundred and sixty amperes or beyond for particular vehicle applications. Modern vehicles come with many complicated electronic systems thus placing a huge demand on their charging systems. The alternator is, therefore, no area to cut corners.

Illustration Details:

1. Bearing 100 percent tested to meet OE standards, reparked using the OEM grade lubricants.

2. Stator Insulation of 600 volts.

3. Rotor insulation and Performance of 600 volts.

4. Housing damage checked for improper surface alignment, corrosion, and warping and retaped to meet the OE standards.

5. Hardware 100 percent stripped and also replated.

6. Rectifier Performance tested up to 300 volts.

7. 100 percent OE standard Voltage Regulator.

8. Slip Ring re-machined to a medium size of 8 microns


• Precise OE assembly benchmark and premium cores

• meet the grueling heat as well as electrical requirements

• First Time Fit® offers a perfect mounting without pulley/ belt alignment issues

Information source:

Autolite spark plugs

Autolite spark plugs

Spark plugs are a very important part of your car since they provide the spark that does ignite the fuel and air mixture within combustion cylinders. This constant ignition keeps your vehicle moving. If you do not check your spark plugs regularly and replace or service them accordingly, they will cause some trouble with your engine. So when is the time to change the spark plugs?

Jittery rough idle

If you find that your engine have a jittery idle. Every engine idles every time the vehicle is not moving( stationary) and in such a stagnant position, it usually produce about 1000 rpm. The sound that your engine gives off is smooth and consistent but in case your plugs are not performing as expected, your engine produces a jittery and rough sound while generating bigger vibrations via the car. Failure to check this leads to costly engine damage.

Autolite spark plugs

Trouble when starting the car

Most people associate the starting down failure with battery problems or lack of gas. You may overlook one possibility: having worn or bad spark plugs. If this is the case, they cannot produce the needed spark to put the vehicle in motion, and then you will go nowhere. It is also likely that your car’s faulty plugs are draining your battery. Again, if this is the case, you should have your spark plugs and battery replaced soonest possible. You can check your local dealer for such plugs as Autolite spark plugs or otherwise. (more…)

electric vehicles

How do Fully Electric Vehicles Work?

If you’re going to consider buying an electric vehicle, chances are good that you’d like to know a little bit more about how it works. It’s not just enough to see them on a test drive, or to walk around the car lot a few times. What you will need to do is look at how they work, how efficient they are, and whether or not they’re going to fit your lifestyle.

For example, if you live in a really small town where there aren’t charging stations or anywhere for you to plug in your vehicle, things can get pretty complicated. It would actually make a lot more sense to buy a traditional car if you had nowhere to keep the electric vehicle running. Yet if you have plenty of charging stations and other ways to plug in your vehicle at night, you’ll be more empowered to purchase an electric vehicle. Ultimately, we envision that the entire nation will have electric vehicles running wild everywhere, but that’s still a long ways off. Even though prices for electric vehicles aren’t what they used to be, they can still be expensive compared to the alternative.

So, how do they work? Let’s go into that now.

electric vehicles

Simply put, the electric vehicle is powered by rechargeable batteries that power the car. When we say “power the car”, we don’t just mean getting you from your house to the grocery store. We mean that you also have to consider the radio, the lights, wipers, and more. If you put an electric car next to a traditional car, you wouldn’t be able to just automatically spot the difference. But if you were to look at the internals, you’d see some differences. For starters, the electric vehicle has no gas tank of any kind. The ones that have gas tanks aren’t true electric vehicles, but hybrids designed to give you the best of both worlds. (more…)

BMW i3

4 Cool All Electric Vehicles

It’s time to part ways with the gas station. We’ve had gas powered vehicles for well over a hundred years, with very few changes. It’s time to go ahead and cut the cord, pulling you into a whole new world of electric technology. Think that the only thing good in the car world is a Prius? Get ready to be amazed at how far technology has come.

1. Ford Focus Electric

Ford Focus Electric

The Focus Electric gives you roughly 75 miles at a full charge. Owners save money on gas and it’s gentle on the environment. There are great rebates on this car, allowing buyers to stay under $25,000.

2. BMW i3

BMW i3

If you’re looking for something that has plenty of range and an all-electric makeup, check out the BMW i3. It’s considered the most energy-efficient vehicle going right now, but its cost is definitely going to keep some away from it. The styling is very cutting edge, and it has plenty of features inside the vehicle to justify the steep price tag. The i3 has an 81 mile range on a full charge.

3. Volkswagen e-Golf

Volkswagen e-Golf

Looking for a traditional hatchback style? Look no further than the e-Golf. It has all-electric power that gives you 83 miles on a full charge. Initial buyers of the e-Golf report that it feels nice to drive and has a high level of efficiency in terms of getting around from place to place. (more…)

Enabling Technology

What is Enabling Technology and how has it changed us?

Enabling technology is an invention or new innovation that can be applied to drive radical change in the capabilities of a user or culture. These are fast developing technologies that range in various fields. In Lehman’s terms; something created to advance society.

In order to provide a better understanding, we’ve put together some of the most significant enabling technologies:


Glasses – If you travel all the way back to 1 A.D. (1 is not a typo), the first written record regarding glasses was found. Granted, these were not glasses as we know them to day, but more of a magnification. The first documented eye glasses were made in Italy in 1286. Other documentations have also stated that the infamous Marco Polo saw civilians in China wearing eye glasses around 1275.

Whatever the case may be, it’s just one of the many examples of our enabling technologies throughout history.


Printing Press – Another history changing piece of technology was the printing press. Johannes Gutenberg invented the machine somewhere around 1440. The printing press provided a line of communication between all of society, and eventually books. Sixty years later there were printing presses throughout all of Western Europe.

A hundred years later, printing presses were in 200+ cities and reach an output of almost 200 million copies. In modern times, printing presses are giving way to the digital era, but their place in history will always be cemented.


Internet – One of the most important enabling technologies, the World Wide Web has transformed the way society interacts with one another. Everything from Facebook and Twitter to Instagram and Snapchat, they are utilized by millions around the world.

The Internet first started back in the 1960s. Its goal at that time was for the government to build a communication portal that could not be breached. However, it wasn’t until the 1980s that the “Internet” was structured as we know it today. How has it affected everyone?

Well, look beyond communication between your family and friends. Instead, look at the other technologies that seemed be reshaped due to the Internet’s ability. For instance, let’s talk about the newspaper. Back in the 1980s, just about every doorstep had a newspaper in the United States. Fast forward 25 years and the newspaper company has either gone out of business, or figured out a way to digitalize themselves online.

Even the television has seen monumental changes over the years. Remember when you used to have to be home by 8pm to watch your favorite show? Those days are long gone thanks to DVR. Oh, and what about your ability to shop? Brick and mortar companies are going stale, and it wouldn’t be surprising to see warehouse distribution sites “only,” and everything is purchased online (except maybe groceries, because there will always be a grocery store…right?).

The point is; enabling technology has been around for centuries and has dramatically changed lives throughout history. It’s exciting to think about the types of enabling technology we have yet to see.

Climate Change

Climate Change

I am not going to go into details about impacts of climate change, for example where it warms most, where it doesn’t warm much or where a semi-arid climate changes to arid but instead I will just be looking at the big picture. If you want a much fuller description of global warming then this wikipedia article is a good place to start.

Climate Change

The main points are:

  • Greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide are being emitted into the atmosphere as pollution from energy production, transport, industrial processes and construction.
  • Earth’s energy balance: Greenhouse gases reduce the amount of heat from the surface of the earth that radiates out to space.
  • The Earth’s climate has always changed as a result of natural factors. The energy balance change that results from our greenhouse gas emissions currently swamps all natural factors, both positive and negative, and is the reason for recent temperature increases.
  • Natural variability can disguise the effects of climate change on a short time scale.
  • Climate feedbacks.

Greenhouse gas emissions

Greenhouse gas

The main greenhouse gases emitted by humans are: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone and various halocarbons. Carbon dioxide is by far the most significant of these greenhouse gases. Water vapour is also a greenhouse gas but behaves as a feedback rather than a forcing. The amount of water vapour in the atmosphere is dependent on the temperature of the atmosphere. The warmer the atmosphere the more water it can hold. The reason water is a feedback rather than a forcing is because of the speed at which water vapour equilibrium within the atmosphere is restored. If you removed all water vapour from the atmosphere, then through evaporation the atmosphere would be at 85% of the equilibrium level within 10 days and by 30 days be at 100%. In comparison, the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is measured in the hundreds of years and methane in the tens of years. As a result, Water Vapour amplifies the effect of any other forcing which is why it is called a feedback.

As of the end of 2006 about 7 gigatons of carbon dioxide (GtC) are emitted into the atmosphere each year. About 4 GtC are taken in by plants and the oceans leaving a net increase of 3 gigatons of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere each year. This net increase shows up in the increase in the parts per million of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

It is projected that as temperatures rise, the ocean, plants and soil will not be able to absorb so much carbon dioxide and at some point may even start emitting carbon dioxide. In this scenario the atmosphere becomes the carbon dioxide sink of last resort.

Earth’s Energy Balance

Energy Balance

For the Earth to remain at constant temperature it must remain in energy balance. This means that the radiation from the Sun that is absorbed by the Earth must equal the radiation emitted by the Earth. Much of the radiation energy emitted from the Sun is in the visible spectrum, whereas most of the radiation energy emitted by the Earth is infra-red. The description of radiation as infra-red, visible, ultra-violet is based on the energy of the radiation, which can also be defined by its wavelength or frequency. Each descriptive term defines an energy band, for example visible radiation refers to radiation that ranges from red light which is at the low energy end of visible radiation to blue light which is at the high end.

The atmosphere allows most of the radiation from the Sun to reach the surface of the Earth and this solar radiation is reflected back into space or warms the surface of the Earth. However, the infra-red radiation emitted by the Earth is absorbed by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. When infra-red radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gas molecules the energy is reemitted as infra-red radiation in any direction or is converted into kinetic energy, adding to the temperature of the atmosphere. If you were looking at the Earth from the moon with your hypothetical infra-red glasses on, the surface of the Earth would appear to be somewhere within the Earth’s atmosphere, the infra-red radiation that you see would not be that emitted from the surface of the Earth but that emitted by greenhouse gas molecules in the atmosphere. (more…)


Potential Risks of Potassium Carbonate Poisoning

Potassium carbonate is found mostly in glass and various types of soap, including hand soap or dishwasher detergent. There is no indication that this chemical may be carcinogenic or mutagenic, but it can be toxic if in contact with skin and eyes, swallowed or inhaled.


When in contact with skin, potassium carbonate causes irritation, particularly after prolonged exposure. First aid procedures include removal of any contaminated items of clothing or shoes, followed by rinsing the affected area for 15 minutes and an emollient applied. In cases of prolonged contact, disinfection with an anti-bacterial cream may be necessary and it is advisable for the patient to seek medical advice.


Potassium carbonate is highly irritant to the eyes and associated mucous membranes. In case of prolonged exposure, it may cause permanent corneal damage, including loss of vision. The first step during first aid is to remove glasses or contact lenses and then flush eyes with cold water for 15 minutes. Due to the seriousness of the situation, patient must seek medical assistance.


If ingested, potassium carbonate causes irritation in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in burns to the lips, tongue, mouth, oesophagus or even stomach. This causes vomiting and nausea, intense abdominal pain and, in extreme cases, difficulty breathing due to swollen glottis, or collapse due to a drastic drop in the blood pressure. If swallowed, it may help to give the patient water or milk, unless in case of vomiting, convulsions or the patient is unconscious. In this case, immediate medical assistance is required to perform an endoscopy to determine the extent of burns down the oesophagus and stomach and provide appropriate medical care.


Patients that inhale large quantities of potassium carbonate may experience coughing, difficulty breathing and chest pains. This is caused by irritation of the respiratory tract and its mucous membranes. In this case, patients should be removed to fresh air, and mouth-to-mouth applied if required.


The prognosis depends greatly on the quantity of potassium carbonate, time of exposure and how quickly first aid was administered. Obviously, the more prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of this chemical, the more dangerous and extensive damage can be and more time for recovery needed. In cases of ingestion of high amounts of sodium carbonate, damage to the digestive tract may continue for several weeks after ingestion.


Operators must be aware of risks associated with handling this chemical and use appropriate personal protection equipment. As this is an extremely fine powder, ventilation is essential to maintain airborne levels under control. Furthermore, when using sodium carbonate, operator must use a lab coat, goggles and gloves, to avoid any direct contact with skin and eyes and prevent inhalation. In cases of large spills, a full-suit and a self-contained breathing apparatus may be required for the clean-up.